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Medical Radiology


Medical Radiology


Academic year 2021/2022

Course ID
Teaching staff
Prof. Andrea Veltri (Coordinator)
Prof.ssa Désirée Deandreis (Lecturer)
Dott. Marco Calandri (Lecturer)
5th year
Teaching period
First semester
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
MED/36 - diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia
Formal authority
Type of examination
Written and oral
Physics, fundamentals of diagnostic and functional imaging (second year, Clinical methodology and semeiotics course, Diagnostic Imaging module), pathologic basis of diseases.

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

The main aim of this course is to allow students to learn how to appropriately prescribe Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology techniques, as well as the therapeutic applications of Nuclear Medicine within the main clinical specialities. This aim will be achieved by focusing on the most important body organs/apparatus and the most common diseases. Focus will be given on some main clinical issues and case-based discussions. Furthermore, students will learn how to assess the risk-benefit ratio for each diagnostic and therapeutic technique used in specific diagnostic pathways (including the issue of exposure of patients to ionizing radiation, as determined by the current radiation protection legislation), as well as the procedures related to how patients grant their informed consent. This will be done by drawing on international guidelines and, where required, national ones too. The more practical part of this course will be focused on the IT tools used to view and analyze images, and on how the availability of reports and images takes place in a real clinical setting.


Results of learning outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have become familiar with the best ways to appropriately select and prescribe radiological and nuclear medicine examinations, as well as interventional procedures, for specific diseases and other clinical issues. They will be able to make these decisions on the grounds of evidence-based criteria and fully account for the risk-benefit ratio of each technique (including laws concerning radiation protection). Students will also be able to give exhaustive information to patients about each technique and will be familiar with the procedures for being granted informed consent by patients.

Through their medical clerkships, students will become familiar with the IT tools typically employed in clinical practice for prescribing examinations and procedures, reading reports and viewing images. Finally, by the end of the course students will have developed key competencies in interpreting the main physiological and pathological findings and will have experienced interventional procedures either first-hand or via video recordings.


Course delivery

48 hours (24 lessons): lectures including case-based interaction; documents furnishing (guidelines, educational articles, legislation documents and protocols, etc.).

12 hours: additional activities (workshops, exercises, seminars, etc.).


Learning assessment methods

Type of exam

  • In-person (except for cases illustrated in the University provisions).
  • Two-day examination:
    1. Day 1, written test (about 30 min): write a short text on one “open-ended” question (out of a list of fifty questions mainly based on the contents of the lessons. Students will be made familiar with this list in advance).
    2. Day 2 (24 hours later or more): an oral exam with one extra question selected from the same list of fifty questions.

Both questions are randomly chosen when the exams start.

Assessment criteria

Ability to organize knowledge. Ability to use critical reasoning on a case study (when asked). Quality of the response in terms of content (use of specialized lexicon, linearity of the response, use of evidence-based arguments, effectiveness, etc.). 


  1. Written test: a numerical mark on a scale of thirty. A minimum of 18/30 is required to take the oral test.
  2. Oral exam: a numerical mark on a scale of thirty. A minimum of 18/30 is required to pass the exam.

Final grade: the mathematical average of the written and oral exam marks; the exam committee reserves the right to award or detract a maximum of 5 points at their discretion.


Support activities

Lectures will be available in live streaming for students who cannot attend due to any of the conditions set out in the University provisions (connect to the link or or  at the scheduled time of the lesson)

Additional teaching material (e.g., slides or pdf files) will be uploaded on the course Moodle page (only available for students who have completed their registration).



  • Lesson 1. Introduction to Medical Radiology course: presentation of teachers; teaching course outlines: prerequisites, course objectives, learning outcomes, contents, learning assessment methods, and suggested readings; questions and answers.

I. Fundamental principles

  • Lesson 2. Patient safety: basic principles of radiation protection; risks of magnetic resonance imaging; risks of nuclear medicine.
  • Lesson 3. Risks of contrast media. Risks of interventional procedures. Informed consent. Appropriateness in requesting imaging examinations and referring patients.
  • Lesson 4. Interacting with the Radiology Department: IT and referral and reporting mechanism (including image viewing). Review of diagnostic modalities I (Conventional radiology and Ultrasound).
  • Lesson 5. Review of diagnostic modalities II (Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance). Cross sectional imaging anatomy.

II. Common emergency conditions

  • Lesson 6. Urgent radiology imaging: chest and abdominal radiographs; skeletal radiograph and major trauma computed tomography.

III. Common clinical scenarios

  • Lesson 7. Chest and cardiovascular disease: chest pain, breathlessness.
  • Lesson 8. Chest and cardiovascular disease: cough, hemoptysis.
  • Lesson 9. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology in lung cancer.
  • Lesson 10. Gastrointestinal disease: abdominal pain and masses.
  • Lesson 11. Gastrointestinal disease: swallowing disorders, change in bowel habits, jaundice, gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
  • Lesson 12. Radiology in chronic liver disease.
  • Lesson 13. Renal and urological disease: urinary colic, haematuria, urinary obstruction, urinary tract infections.
  • Lesson 14. Renal and urological disease: renal, urinary, and prostate tumors; testicular disease.
  • Lesson 15. Breast disease.
  • Lesson 16. Neurological disease: stroke, severe headache, seizures, altered consciousness, spinal cord compression.
  • Lesson 17. Musculoskeletal disease: bone and joint pain, bone and soft tissue infection, neck and back pain.
  • Lesson 18. Obstetric and gynaecological disease: normal and abnormal pregnancy; gynaecological tumors.
  • Lesson 19. Diagnostic and interventional radiology in the advanced oncological scenario: oligometastatic disease, diffuse metastatic disease, interventional procedures and standardized reporting criteria.

IV. Nuclear Medicine

  • Lesson 20. Endocrine diseases: Functional studies and therapy.
  • Lesson 21. Oncology: Management of main solid tumors and prostate cancer (PET and SPECT tracers).
  • Lesson 22. Neurology: Neurodegenerative diseases and Movement disorders (Dementia, Parkinson, and Parkinsonism).
  • Lesson 23. Cardiology and Nephrology (Ischemic, Inflammatory, Vascular and Infectious disease).
  • Lesson 24. Radioguided surgery.

Suggested readings and bibliography



Last update: 06/10/2021 15:18
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