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Basic pathology and immunology - Module of General pathology


Basic pathology and immunology - Module of General pathology


Academic year 2020/2021

Course ID
Teaching staff
Prof. Fiorella Biasi (Lecturer)
Prof.ssa Gabriella Marisa Leonarduzzi
Dott. Paola Francesca Gamba
Modular course
2nd year
Teaching period
First semester
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
MED/04 - patologia generale
Type of examination
Written and oral

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

General Pathology objectives: this part of the course will provide molecular basis for understanding causes, mechanisms and evolution of human diseases. Main processes such as necrosis, inflammation and tissue degeneration, which are fundamental for understanding disease development and progression, will be considered. A group of lessons will be dedicated to ONCOLOGY for understanding biomolecular mechanisms involved in tumor development and growth, as well as becoming familiar with tumor nomenclature and classification.


Results of learning outcomes

Students will achieve knowledge on fundamental  mechanisms of damage and recognizing disease processes regarding the impairment of tissue homeostasis, immune responses, cancer development and progression.


Course delivery

The course mainly consists of lectures associated with exercise activities.

For the first semester 2020-2021 the course will be online.

General Pathology module will be provided either through lessons in streaming (on Webex platform) or audio-slides. In both cases lessons will be uploaded on the Moodle platform.

  • Exercises for Basic Pathology: in order to clarify principal lesson topics, exercises/quizzes and deepening lectures will be provided online through Webex platform as scheduled: exercise activities will consist of microscopic visualization of pathological tissue specimens. Active discussion, quizzies and seminars will be provided in order to give deep information and improve the topics of the lessons (You will receive a Webex invitation to take part to the lessons or exercises in streaming).

Learning assessment methods

    General Pathology module: oral exam (WebEx virtual room); the exam consists in 2-3 questions. Students will be invited by an email in which information on scheduled day and hour, and WebEx link, where students can access to the virtual room, will be given. Oral exams are public, so students who want to listen the exam can connect to the virtual room.

The module mark is expressed in thirtieths.

The final mark of the exam in the whole (expressed in thirtieths) will be the weighted media between Basic Immunology module (4 CFU) and General Pathology module (6 CFU): [(Immunology mark x4) + (Pathology mark x 6)]/10.

The mark of each module can be preserved only for the next exam date.


Support activities

General Pathology - Students with disabilities that may affect learning are encouraged to contact the lecturers to adapt learning materials, activities and testing methods.




  • Tissue damage: adaptation conditions (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, regression, metaplasia, dysplasia)
  • Cell death: morphological, biochemical and molecular aspects of necrosis and apoptosis. The role of cellular redox balance
  • Acute inflammation (Angiophlogosis): structure and function of the blood microvascular system. Exudate formation
  • Inflammatory mediators: fluid phase mediators and cellular mediators
  • Chronic inflammation (Histophlogosis): Classification and mechanism of formation of different unspecific and specific (granulomas) types of chronic inflammation
  • Wound healing: tissue regeneration and reintegration
  • Environmental causes of damage: physical (extreme temperatures and pressures; ionizing and non-ionizing radiation) and chemical factors
  • Fever: causes, mechanisms, stages and classification
  • Degenerative processes: thesaurismoses by lysosomal enzyme deficit, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatosis, fibrosis and sclerosis, hepatic cirrhosis
  • Oncology:
    • Definition of neoplasia. The neoplastic multiphasic process
    • Normal and neoplastic proliferation - Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
    • Cancer growth and invasiveness: molecular mechanisms of tumor infiltration and angiogenesis
    • Tumor metastases - principal routes of cancer spreading
    • Epidemiology and classification of tumors. Tumor grading and staging
    • Cancer etiology: chemical, physical, biological and genetic causes
    • Inflammation and cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
    • Tumor cachexia
    • Hereditary cancers

Suggested readings and bibliography


Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition, Vinay Kumar, Abul Abbas, Jon Aster, Elsevier Ed.

Last update: 23/02/2021 11:19
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