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Orthopedics and Traumatology


Orthopedics and Traumatology


Academic year 2023/2024

Course ID
Filippo Castoldi (Coordinator)
Stefania Raimondo (Lecturer)
Enrico Bellato (Lecturer)
Paolo Capodaglio (Lecturer)
Davide Ciclamini (Lecturer)
3rd year
Teaching period
First semester
6 (48 hours of lectures, 24 hours of exercises)
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
BIO/16 - human anatomy
MED/19 - plastic surgery
MED/33 - musculoskeletal system diseases
Formal authority
Type of examination
Written and oral

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

The student is supposed first to learn the anatomy of the muscoloskeletal system. Then he or she will have to learn the pathogenesis, the diagnostic process and the treatment of the most frequent pathology affecting the muscoloskeletal system and the soft tissues.


Results of learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student will be asked to analyze and solve clinical cases of patients affected by muscoloskeletal system diseases.




  • General aspects of bones, joints and skeletal muscles.
  • General aspects of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle innervations.
  • Anatomy of the trunk: bones, joints, ligaments and muscles.
  • Anatomy of the upperlimb: bones, joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist), muscles, nerves (median, ulnar, radial nerves).
  • Anatomy of the lowerlimb: bones, joints (hip, knee, ankle), muscles, nerves (sciatic nerve).



  • Basic science in orthopaedics and traumatology
  • Diagnosis in orthopaedics.
  • Genetic disorders, skeletal dysplasias and malformations:
    • Developmental dysplasia of the hip;
    • Congenital deformities of the foot (talipes equinovarus, metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus, congenital vertical talus);
  • Infancy and childhood pathologies:
    • Osteochondrosis/osteochondritis:
      • General aspects;
      • Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease;
      • Other forms of osteochondrosis (Sever’s disease, Scheuermann’ disease, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Kohler’s disease).
    • Slipped capital femoral epiphysis;
    • Kyphosis and Scoliosis;
    • Osteochondritis dissecans;
    • Genu varum and genu valgum in children and adults;
    • Pes planus and pes valgus (“flat foot”);
    • Pes cavus (“high-arched foot”).
  • Muscoloskeletal tumours:
    • Primary tumours of bone:
      • Benign lesions of bone: osteochondroma, enchondroma, multiple chondromas and associated conditions, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, non-ossifying fibroma, giant-cell tumour of bone, simple bone cyst, aneurismal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, osteochondroma, giant-cell tumour of bone, chondroblastoma.
      • Malignant bone tumours: osteosarcoma and its variants, chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma.
    • Metastatic bone disease.
    • Multiple myeloma.
    • Lipoma and liposarcoma.
  • Metabolic and endocrine bone disorders:
    • Physiology of the bone;
    • Assessment of bone disorders;
    • Osteoporosis;
    • Rickets and osteomalacia;
    • Chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorders;
    • Hyperparathyroidism;
    • Paget’s disease of bone.
  • Bone infections:
    • Acute/Subacute/Chronic ostemyelitis;
    • Acute suppurative arthritis;
    • Tuberculosis.
  •  Osteoarthritis:
    • General aspects;
    • Hip osteoarthritis and total hip arthroplasty (implant materials);
    • Knee osteoarthritis and knee replacement;
    • Allux valgus.
  • Femoroacetabular impingement.
  • Non-traumatic pathology of the shoulder:
    • Impingement syndrome;
    • Rotator cuff tendinitis and rupture;
    • Calcification of the rotator cuff;
    • Biceps tendon pathology;
    • Frozen shoulder;
    • Osteoarthritis of the acromion-clavicular joint;
    • Shoulder osteoarthritis;
    • Shoulder instability;
    • Shoulder arthroscopy.
  • Avascular necroris of the femoral head.
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).
  • Nerve compression syndromes:
    • General aspects;
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome;
    • Cubital tunnel syndrome;
    • Radial nerve compression.
  • Tendon disorders:
    • Tendinopathies around the elbow (tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, distal biceps tendinopathy and avulsion);
    • Tendinopathies around the hand (trigger finger, mallet finger, De Quervain’s disease);
    • Dupuytren’s contracture;
    • Tendinopathies around the knee (patellar and quadriceps tendinopathy, rupture of the extensor apparatus);
    • Disorders of the Achilles tendon (tendinitis and rupture).
  • Nontraumatic pathology of the spine:
    • Intervertebral cervical and lumbar disc degeneration and prolapse;
    • Spondilolisthesis;
    • Spinal stenosis.


  • General principles:
    • Definition and Classification of fracture;
    • How fractures heal;
    • Clinical features;
    • Complications of fractures;
    • Open fractures;
    • Stress fractures;
    • Injuries of the physis;
    • Injuries to joints;
    • General principles of nonoperative and operative treatment.
  • Lower limb traumatology in adults:
    • Hip fractures;
    • Femoral shaft and supracondilar fractures of the femur;
    • Pelvic fractures;
    • Tibial plateau fractures;
    • Patella fracture and dislocation;
    • Tibial and fibular fractures
    • Ankle sprain.
  • Upper limb traumatology in adults:
    • Fractures (clavicle, scapula, glenoid, proximal humerus, umeral shaft, distal humerus, radial head, coronoid, olecranon, forerm, distal radius, scaphoid);
    • Dislocations (glenohumeral, acromio-clavicular; “pulled elbow”, simple elbow dislocation).
  • Knee ligament injuries:
    • Cruciate and collateral ligaments injuries;
    • Meniscal injuries;
    • Knee arthroscopy.


Rehabilitation medicine

The module of Rehabilitation Medicine includes lectures to the students with a focus on clinical implications and new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in Rehabilitation.
Introduction to Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Learning goals: 

  • Rehabilitation in the future: Rehabilitation 2030.
  • Epidemiology.
  • The role of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Physician.
  • Individual Rehabilitation Plan.
  • Diagnostic, therapeutic, and assessment tools in Rehabilitation.


Plastic Surgery

  • Principles, techniques and basic science (the skin, skin grafts, microsurgical basic techniques, standards for basic and advanced microsurgical training in Italy, nerve sutures, micro anastomosis, common and standard skin and muscle workhorse flaps, workhorse perforator flaps, the scar)
  • Hand and upper limb surgery (fractures dislocations and ligamentous Injuries of the hand, compression neuropathies of the upper limb, flexor and extensor tendons repair, Dupuytren disease, replantation in the upper extremity, treatment of complex wounds, local flaps)
  • Orthoplastic surgery (open fractures classification, BOA-BAPRAS international guidelines of treatment, timing, principles of reconstruction and flap choice, orthopaedic surgeon and plastic surgeon combined approach)
  • Recalcitrant nonunions of bones (principles of reconstruction - long bones and scaphoid)
  • Brachial plexus and upper limb reanimation (trauma, general examination and diagnosis, principles of treatment, nerve transfers, tendon transfer, bone fusions)
  • Abdominal wall and perineum reconstruction (principles, techniques, flap choice)
  • Pressure sores: principles of treatment and reconstruction.
  • Gender affirmation surgery (microsurgical applications in andrology, female to male, phalloplasty surgery in trauma and transgender, techniques and flap choice, hints of aesthetic genital plastic surgery, revision surgery)
  • Post-oncological breast surgery (breast augmentation, reduction, autologous reconstruction and flap choice)
  • Burns, congenital hand abnormalities, hints of cosmetic surgery

Course delivery

The topics of the course are conveyed by means of face-to-face lectures.                                    


Learning assessment methods

The exam will be divided into 2 parts.

First part: written exam with multiple choice questions (10 questions for each module). In the orthopedics written exam, more than one answer for each question can be correct. At least one answer for each question is correct. In order to obtain 1 point the student have to give all the correct answers to the question. For the anatomy and plastic surgery written exam only one answer for each question is correct. In order to attend the second part of the exam, the student will have to correctly answer more than 50% (i.e. 6 out of 10) of the questions of each of the three modules of the course. The mark obtained with the written part does not affect the final mark of the exam.

Second part: oral exam. The student will have to attend an oral exam for each of the three modules. He or she will be supposed to obtain at least 18 out of 30 in each module to pass the exam. The final mark will be the result of the weighted average of the 3 marks.


Suggested readings and bibliography

Apley & Solomon's System of Orthopaedics and Trauma
Year of publication:  
Taylor & Francis
Ashley Blom, David Warwick, Michael Whitehouse

Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice
Year of publication:  
Susan Standring (ed.)

Human Anatomy
Year of publication:  
Anastasi et al



Students with DSA or disabilities are kindly requested to take note of the reception services and support services offered by the University of Turin, and in particular of the procedures required for exam support.


Teaching Modules

Last update: 29/11/2023 14:15
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